Leaders & Power

Power is something which gives us the ability to influence or direct other people. It is an invisible but powerful force in our lives and our organizations. I have worked for supervisors who use their power to produce fear and for others who wield it in ways that makes me want to perform my best. We can learn a lot about others based on how they use (or don’t use) power.

There are two types of power that occur as we interact with others.

Positional Power is the use of your authority over someone to get something done. This type of power is something you exert over others. Positional power is given to a person as a result of their position (your boss at work can use his position to make you do things), the ability to give out rewards (a coach who awards hard working players with more playing time) or it can also be applied in a coercive way (Kim Jong-un, the despotic ruler of North Korea uses coercive power to ensure follows do as he says).  As an example, when parents tell our children ‘because I said so’ they are using our positional power to make something happen (or stop something from occurring!). A simple way to visualize positional power is with the image of you pointing your finger at another person – this simple gesture indicates your positional power and authority over another person.

Personal Power is when your authority is given to you by others. It is typically given because of the expertise or competence that a person possesses (we typically extend this trust to our medical doctor) or by our personal identification or liking of a person (few people personally knew Nelson Mandela but he was liked by almost everyone). Personal power is bestowed upon us by others and gives us the ability to accomplish something because others allow us to do so. Instead of us pointing a finger at others, the image for this style of power has others pointing a finger at us and asking for our involvement or expertise. When your child texts you and asks you for advice they are bestowing personal power as they are indicating that they respect and trust your judgement.

Effective use of positional and personal power is situational and we must learn when to use each one. At times, it is appropriate for parents to request their children to do something ‘because they said so’ (positional). In contrast, Pope Francis appears to believe that he can accomplish the goals of the Catholic Church by allowing others to give him power (personal).

There are also times when we can inappropriately use power. Can you recall a social conversation with someone who keeps trying to impress others by telling all about their accomplishments? These people are inappropriately trying to remind you that they deserve positional power (and it usually backfires). As well, an over-reliance of personal power will not be effective when you are in situations when no one knows you. Personal power is something which is earned over time.

Effective leaders understand the difference between positional and personal power. Furthermore, they know when to use each of them in order to accomplish their goals. I encourage you to evaluate your use of power. Which of these styles do you use more often? Which style needs improvement? Which do you tend to use inappropriately?


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Jeff Suderman is a futurist, consultant, and professor who works in the field of organizational development. He partners with clients to improve culture, leadership, teamwork, organizational alignment, strategy and organizational future-readiness. He resides in Palm Desert, California. Twitter: @jlsuderman Email: jeff@jeffsuderman.com

 

How Leaders, Followers & Power Work Together (or Not!)

This week’s guest post is from Dustin J. Knutson. He holds a Doctorate in Strategic Leadership from Regent University (VA) and lives and works with his wife and two daughters as an expatriate in the Middle East.

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What kind of leader are you?

What kind of power do you have and how do you use it to influence?

What leadership environment do you create for others?

Understanding the answers to these three simple questions will equip you to lead more knowledgeably and more effectively!

What Kind of Leader Are You?
“Some people are leaders because of their formal position in an organization, whereas others are leaders because of the way other group members respond to them. These two forms of leadership are called assigned leadership and emergent leadership” (Northouse).

What Kind of Power Do You Have?
“Position power is the power a person derives from a particular office or rank in a formal organizational system. It is the influence capacity a leader derives from having higher status than the followers… Personal power is the influence capacity a person derives from being seen by followers as likable and knowledgeable” (Northouse).

What Kind of Leadership Environment Do You Create?
As you combine the two ideas above, your leadership type and power dynamic blend to create different working environments for followers. Think of these as the three different environments that you can create for others to work in.

  1. Compliant but Not Necessarily Motivated
    The first environment is where assigned leaders only utilize position power and thus create compliant followers. Followers are not necessarily motivated but do what they are told because of rank and status or the threat of rewards or punishment. Followers led by these types of leaders will typically only do the bare minimum. Morale can be low.
  2. Motivated by Charisma
    The second environment is where emergent leaders exhibit personal power to persuade followers to accomplish a task without any formal authority. Followers are typically motivated by the leader’s vision and contagious qualities. Individuals feel drawn to follow emergent leaders regardless of their rank or status. Assigned leaders who use only position power may feel threatened by the informal leadership of emergent leaders; however, these emergent leaders inspire innovation, teamwork, and positive corporate culture.
  3. Motivated and Committed
    The third environment is where assigned leaders are also emergent leaders. These leaders selective use position power only when needed or when personal power isn’t enough. They rely on their personal power to create a motivated following and are most effective when followers are asked or persuaded to act rather than told what to do. Followers of these leaders typically overachieve more often. They act both out of respect for the position of authority of their leader and because they feel led rather than managed.

Who would you name in your organization that you would consider an assigned leaders but not an emergent leader? Vice versa? Both? Consider why, and then examine those qualities in yourself.

What category would your followers place you in?

Are you leading and following as effectively as you could be? Why?

If you’d like to increase your personal power and emergent leadership, try courageously asking your followers for honest feedback. Ask them to provide you with their insights about leadership styles or traits they prefer, or would like to see more of in you. Then consider the feedback, communicate the changes you’re willing and committed to make, follow through, and follow up. While difficult, you’ll be glad you did. You’ll likely become more influential and powerful as a result – but for all the right reasons!


 

Head ShotJeff Suderman is a futurist, professor and consultant who works in the field of organizational development. He works with clients to improve culture, leadership, teamwork, organizational alignment, strategy and organizational future-readiness. He resides in Palm Desert, California. Twitter: @jlsuderman, E-mail: jeff@jeffsuderman.com.

References

Northouse, P. (2007). Leadership: theory and practice. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

If Information is Power, How Do You Wield it?

The adage “information is power” is so common that we often fail to reflect on what it really means. This simple concept is foundational to how most of the world works. Our view about the power of information explains why North Americans place such a high priority on things like education (which builds information capacity), access to the internet (which provides access to information) and freedom of speech (which gives us the right to possess information).

However, if information is power, then we must assess what kind of power it wields. In and of itself, information is not good or bad. However, as we act (or don’t act) on information it inherits value. As citizens of “the information age”, what does it really mean to have access to so much information? Or to have access to so much power?

It has been said that “information is a cudgel, a beacon, an olive branch, a deterrent – all depending on who yields it and how” (Levitt & Dubner). It would seem that power and information share a symbiotic relationship. Here are two basic ways that we harness the power of information.

Information Lords: When we view ourselves as “lords”, we assume the role of an owner. We seek to use the information at our disposal for our own benefit. At times this means using it as a cudgel (think of recent political debates) and at other times we hide information in order to achieve our desired ends (illegal stock traders do this as does Kim Jong-un, the Supreme Ruler of North Korea). Recently a scandal erupted when we discovered that Volkswagen has been hiding information about their vehicle emission levels (they built their cars to cheat on emissions tests). This act reveals that those who had access to Volkswagen emissions information determined to hide it from public scrutiny. Those who act as information lords will seek to use information to build or protect their own power.

Information Stewards: A steward is different than a lord in that they understand that they are not owners. Rather, they view themselves as people who are entrusted with that which someone else owns. It may be stewards of your shareholders investments or of the well-being of others. In the early 1980’s poisoned Tylenol was discovered on store shelves. Not knowing the source of this problem, Tylenol publicly announced they were removing all of their pills from the market in order to protect consumers. This had devastating financial effects for the company. However, they realized that they were stewards of information which would save lives and acted as stewards. Those who act as information stewards will seek to use information to build up or protect those things they have been entrusted with.

As individuals and organizations, we must reflect on how we exercise the power of information. While it is easy to point fingers a Kim Jong-un or Volkswagen, we have all acted as information owners by only telling part of the story or by withholding information that helps our own cause. However, we have also had those moments when we realize that we are simply stewards of information. This occurs when you return the extra $20 in change you receive or when you admit to making a mistake that no one else knows about.

Each day presents you with countless opportunities to use information as power. Do you act as an lord or steward this information?


 

Jeff Head Shot 3.jpgDr. Jeff Suderman seeks to harness to power of information as a consultant, professor and pracademic who works in the field of organizational development. He partners with clients to improve culture, leadership, teamwork, organizational alignment, strategy and organizational future-readiness. He resides in Palm Desert, California. Twitter: @jlsuderman

References

Steven D. Levitt & Stephen J. Dubner (2005). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything.

Leading Globally: The Power Distance Effect

We have all felt power at work in our professional and personal relationships. Sometimes it draws us nearer to people and at times it pushes us away. At times it operates so naturally that we feel comfortable while at other times it makes us uncomfortable. There is a term for this – power distance.

By definition, power distance is the degree to which we expect and agree that power should be stratified and concentrated at higher levels. High power distance seeks more stratification while lower score minimize differences. This phenomenon is very present as we examine cultural norms. The caste system in India is a historic example of how power distance can dramatically define and affect relationships and societies.

The chart below illustrates some of the most common differences between countries with high or low power distance scores. At the bottom of this blog you will find a reference chart which provides specific results for the 62 countries in the GLOBE study.

Leading Globally - Power Distance

 

 

 

 

Power distance norms correlate directly to how we lead. Countries with low scores utilize Leading Globally - Power Distance3charismatic and participative leadership styles. Countries with high scores practice self-protective leadership. In addition, the GLOBE research reveals that traditionally, strong Catholic countries have a culture of strong power distance. High practices of power distance are also associated with higher levels of male domination in societies. To illustrate this point, I encourage you to look for countries which have female Presidents or Prime Minister’s. In most cases, you will find that they are nations with lower power distance scores.

This global measure provides us with helpful insights into how societies operate. Power distance is a quiet principle that affects our lives in significant ways. Effective leaders and organizations must learn to identify and adapt to variances in power distance norms as they work and relate to others.

This blog is part 6 of an 8 part series on global leadership. You may enjoy reviewing some previous posts: Gender EqualityAssertivenessFuture OrientationPerformance Orientation and Individualism.


 

Head ShotJeff Suderman is a professor and consultant who works inLeading Globally - Power Distance 2
the field of organizational development. He partners with clients to improve leadership, teamwork, organizational alignment, strategy and their Future-Readiness. He resides in Palm Desert, California. Twitter: @jlsuderman

Reference

House, R., Hanges, P.J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.W., Gupta, V. (2004).Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.